CHEMTRAILS IN THE SKY AND THE NEW MICROBES
by: Thomas, William
William Thomas is an investigative journalist who comes to us from the Gulf Islands of British Columbia. He has won numerous awards for his feature films and articles. His 30-minute Gulf War documentary "Ecowar" was the U.S. Environmental film festival award for "best documentary short" in 1991. William Thomas is the author of Scorched Earth: The Military's War Against the Environment and Bringing the War Home: The True Story Behind the Gulf War Illness and Biological Warfare in the Gulf. William has lectured extensively on the Gulf War and biological warfare in the '90's, and is a frequent guest on the "Art Bell Radio Show". His latest book is Probing the Chemtrails Conundrum.
BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS TIED TO GULF WAR SYNDROME
I have been an investigative journalist for the past 30 years and as a journalist I base my reports on documented information. During the Gulf War, I served as a member of a three-man volunteer environmental emergency response team in Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, and Kuwait, and returned from that experience emotionally scarred, and with my immune system ravaged. After recovering through a program of supplementation, I became very disturbed to find hundreds and hundreds of emails from U.S. and Canadian veterans complaining of something they called Gulf War Syndrome. My investigation into biological weapons has been ongoing since I returned from the Gulf War, and I uncovered the untold story of the biological war in the Gulf in my book Bringing the War Home. In a previous book, Scorched Earth, I examined biological warfare experimentation, particularly in the United States.
In January, 1999, I was contacted by the managing editor of the Environment News Service, an international wire service which I had worked for in the Gulf. I was asked to check out a story by William Wallace about very unusual aerial activity over the state of Washington that was apparently changing the skies overhead. Wallace and his wife lived in a remote mountainous area, and he claimed that large unmarked jet aircraft were flying back and forth over his property, spraying something in the air. Unlike normal contrails behind commercial jets which dissipate quickly, these lingered for hours, came together and obscured the sky. Mr. Wallace said that he and his wife were very ill, their dogs were dying, and their plants were dying. I began to investigate this story and after looking at a videotape made by Mr. Wallace, realized as a former pilot and former member of the military myself, that this was very unusual aerial activity. He gave me some of his contacts across the United States, and as I followed up on those contacts, I developed a huge story. As of today we have over 1,000 eyewitness reports on the so-called chemtrail phenomena. We have documented evidence that chemtrail spraying is taking place over cities throughout Canada, the United States, England, Australia, Holland, Italy, Germany, and New Zealand. And I have uncovered direct ties between biological warfare experimentation and the spraying of pathogenic material and chemicals over our cities.
I have found in my research over the past 15 months that in every instance of heavy spraying over cities across Canada and the United States, there has been an epidemic of acute upper respiratory ailments and gastrointestinal ailments that have overfilled hospital emergency rooms across North America. After researching biological warfare, I found two U.S. Congressional investigations documenting decades of biological warfare experimentation carried out over hundreds of cities in the United States and Canada, including Winnipeg. While these biowarfare simulants were said to be "harmless", some of the new genetically-engineered pathogens - particularly mycoplasma and other fungi - are now loose among the general population. This has occurred through vaccinations of Texas prisoners, and inoculations of Gulf War soldiers - many of whom never left the United States.
Many autoimmune diseases have been seen in the wake of the chemtrail spraying - such as chronic fatigue, multiple sclerosis, lupus, once very rare transverse myelitis and meningitis. My researchers and I are also finding that there appears to be a mental-emotional component to this spray that is a disorienting factor. It is a factor that makes people lethargic and mentally confused, with an inability to concentrate and short-term memory loss.
CHEMICAL CONTRAILS IN THE SKY
TWO SPRAYING PROGRAMS: HIGH AND LOW
(a) THE HIGH-FLYING SPRAY PROGRAM Chemtrails are not contrails from commercial airplane traffic. Contrails are condensation trails formed when moisture from hot engine exhaust momentarily condenses into ice crystals, usually above 35,000 feet. Chemtrails occur around 22,000 feet, and they do not dissipate within 45 seconds as contrails usually do, according to Air Transport authorities. (However, genuine contrails over heavily trafficked areas do sometimes linger and nitrogen oxide and other jet engine pollutants can form extensive cloud cover over time.) Unlike normal contrails, chemtrail plumes are laid in parallel lines in grid patterns and telltale X's over towns, cities and remote rural areas. They spread out, and over hours coagulate into a dense droopy overcast. This is not a normal overcast. Often you will even see this being woven between regular cumulus clouds, and it drips and it weeps. Within 24 to 48 hours, people on the ground often flood emergency rooms with acute upper respiratory ailments, gastrointestinal problems, gushing nose bleeds, joint pain, and a dry, hacking cough that unlike flu, lasts for four or five weeks, and then often returns. These symptoms are characteristic of the mycoplasma infections found in some blood-tested chemtrail observers. We have positively identified many of these aircraft as unmarked KC-135 and KC-10 Airforce tankers. In early March, hundreds of KC-135 aircraft were grounded for a part to be replaced in the tail-section of the airplane, and spray activity decreased from 24, to just two locations across the United States. Spray activity climbed right back to previous levels as the planes returned to service the following week.
(b) THE LOW FLYING SPRAY PROGRAM These contrails are sprayed by low flying C-130 Turboprop aircraft. I witnessed this myself in Pagosa Springs, Colorado, last summer. I was stunned to see a C-130 gliding low over this little resort town in the mountains, engines throttled back, dead quiet, spray coming out of the wings of the aircraft as it pulled away. I was standing in the middle of the intersection with my mouth hanging open! I went into the stores in that town, and everybody was coughing like crazy. We also took samples from aluminum-sided buildings in Michigan and Pennsylvania that were not contaminated by background bacteria. We found Pseudomonas fluorescens, streptomyces and a bacillus. In a similar sample taken a year previously on the other side of the United States, we found the same things, as well as other very pathogenic moulds. Rainwater samples taken after heavy spraying over Espanola, Ontario, were found to contain aluminum seven times higher than permissible safe levels. Chemtrail fallout also included carbon black - this is used by the United States Air Force for weather modification. It absorbs sunlight and heats the atmosphere. Carbon black can be hit with HAARP or similar ionispheric heaters and artificially heated to change the weather. They also found chaff (a fine cobwebby filament used to jam radars) in the fallout, and this very fine filament stays aloft for up to a day. So if you put it in your spray mix, you can track the distribution of your spray on radar for a full day. We have very clean lab samples of the material being sprayed and it all contains very pathogenic moulds and fungi. I discovered an article in the Portland Free Press, written by John Titus, in March 1997, describing how dozens of these spray-equipped aircraft, C-130s, were taken away from the U.S. Forest Service, from forest fire-fighting duties, and taken over by the CIA for "missions undisclosed."
CHEMTRAILS IN CANADA In March 1999, people in Espanola, Ontario began to see large unmarked multi-engine aircraft, white in colour, laying X's in the sky over Espanola. When they called friends in Sudbury about 50 miles away, those same X's were being laid at the very same time. These were grid patterns like tic-tac-toe laid in the skies overhead, parallel patterns like jets furrowing a farm field with plumes that at first-sight looked like condensation trails. But instead of evaporating and dissipating quickly, they lingered, spread out and dripped a kind of a mist onto the good residents of Espanola. A reddish powder was also dropped on patios and a nearby lake from AC-130s flying at rooftop level. Everyone, and I mean everyone, became very ill with severe muscle and joint pain, headaches, upper respiratory ailments and more recently, gastrointestinal ailments. One of my researchers, Erminia Cassani came up from the States, and went to Espanola to see what was going on. She saw a C-130 Turboprop spray that community at very low level, rooftop level, with a red powder. She collected the sample, and took it to the same government lab that had been doing sample tests for us earlier in the year. They found a cocktail of pathogenic moulds and fungi. The Ontario Ministry of Environment became involved and tested the rainwater in Espanola, and they found carbon black and chaff in this fallout. Near North labs found aluminum in the rainwater at .53 ppm (parts per million), seven times the safe threshold in Canada, enough they said, to kill fish. The U.S. Airforce claimed that it wasn't their planes. The Canadian Air Force said, "We do not know what is going on in our own skies." Finally, last summer, the residents of Espanola signed a petition and took it to Parliament in Ottawa and demanded an investigation. They said, "We want some answers and we want this stopped." The Ministry of Defense promised to get back to them. They haven't heard yet.
In Kitchener, Ontario, recently, there was a sudden outbreak of people complaining of earaches, blocked sinuses, sore throats and acute attacks of asthma. Everyone was sick at the same time. This is not how flu operates. There has been heavy spraying over Kitchener. In the wake of the spraying, we have seen 1-800 numbers posted which ask you to call in to become part of medical studies, and the qualification is that you have contracting specific symptoms within a certain area within a specific time frame. That sounds like biological warfare tracking to me.
CHEMTRAILS IN USA Erminia Cassani also found some samples of this gel-like material that had splattered a house in the central United States. According to neighbours who witnessed it, it had been dropped from an airplane. We have photographs of the substance. She interviewed the owner, but the owner had been stricken by endocarditis within a month, had a heart attack and was admitted to hospital. We took this to a government-licensed lab. Many samples from this fallout have landed on the ground, or porches, and could have been contaminated by bacteria and the surrounding environment. These samples came from aluminum-sided buildings, taken immediately; they were clean, good samples. Erminia Cassani is a health researcher and knows how to collect samples. The lab said, "Where did you get this biohazard material? We have never seen anything grow out so quickly and overflow our culture dishes within 48 hours." They found three things: Pseudomonas fluorescens, streptomyces, and a very toxic bacillus, as well as a chemical dye marker taken from a coral reef and a restrictor enzyme used to restrict or cut DNA used in research laboratories. Why is this substance being dropped from an airplane!
Then we became aware of a similar incident in Pennsylvania last year. Neighbours had witnessed the X-patterns, the weird sky designs as they called it, and an airplane overflying the house so low they thought it would hit the roof. The sample was sent to Erminia, and she took it to the same lab. We did not expect much in terms of this sample because it was a year old and dried out. However the same thing happened. It overgrew the dish; it amazed the head lab technician. They found streptomyces, the same bacillus, and a cocktail of other toxic moulds. Within a few months, Erminia was admitted to hospital with a black yeast mould found in that sample on her left lung, and she became one of the first documented human links between the aerial spray and human illness.
PROJECT CLOVERLEAF In addition to military aircraft, some insiders allege that commercial airlines are being equipped to release "special undisclosed chemicals" under the government's "Project Cloverleaf" (begun around 1998). Using airliners to spray aluminum powder in an effort to avert global warming is also called for in the Welsbach patent. This information has not been released to the public.
CREDIBILITY FOR THE CHEMTRAIL PHENOMENA Just this year my original story for the Environment News Service was chosen by Project Censored as one of the censored stories of 1999, by a panel of peer-reviewed highly professional journalists who looked at this story and concluded that it is real. So the chemtrails story has real journalistic credibility.
For the past two winters over towns and cities throughout England and North American, strange X's were appearing in the skies. In these same cities, there have been outbreaks of "flu" epidemics that have filled hospital emergency rooms across the country. We have also had a dramatic onslaught of degenerative autoimmune diseases, chronic fatigue, fibromyalgia, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, all apparently originating from viral, bacterial, or fungal infections. During this time most of us have been ill with something that doesn't quite act like the flu because it holds on for weeks and months at a time, seems to get better, and then returns. It is very hard to shake. In fact, during the height of this year's 33-week epidemic of fatalities from pneumonia and "flu-like" illness, the Centers for Disease Control blood-tested acutely ill patients - and found that between 67% and 85% did not have the flu. (The CDC now says, "An unknown pathogen" may be responsible for these illnesses and deaths.) This epidemic is particularly hard on children and the elderly.
We have found Streptococcus in our samples of low-level air-dropped material. Streptococcus A and fatalities were up about 200 to 300% across North America. Meningitis, another rare inflammation of the brain and spinal cord has occurred in epidemic proportions in certain areas across North America. In certain areas of the country, there are epidemic levels of multiple sclerosis, which used to be a fairly rare ailment. Transverse myelitis, perhaps the rarest of all, used to be almost unheard of, but we are getting increased reports of this disease across North America this year.
Prof. Colman Salloway, an epidemiologist at the University of New Hampshire, was investigating the Sydney A variant of influenza that was shutting down universities across the United States, but he found out that no cultures were being taken, and in fact, this is usually the case with flu. Doctors prescribe on symptomology, and rarely do blood work. Whereas flu usually gives you a bad cough and other symptoms for five to seven days, this ailment gives people a very dry hacking cough for four to five weeks and often returns. Prof. Salloway concluded that the only thing that does that is mycoplasma.
Another disturbing thing is that these illnesses are driving people toward experimental vaccination programs. There is a push for vaccines for flu, pneumonia and migraines, and migraines are also a common symptom of spraying. We know that vaccines are loaded with formaldehyde, formalin, little parts of recombinant genes, cancer causing material and monkey viruses. There is not only a campaign to push us toward vaccines, but to vaccinate infants soon after birth.
THE MYCOPLASMA BEHIND THE EPIDEMICS
The probable origin of these unknown pathogens is a biological warfare program (see The Brucellosis Triangle, and the Consumer Health Newsletter, Jun.00 by Don Scott). Don Scott explains how the bioweaponeers extracted the active agent of brucellosis from the brucellosis bacteria. Although the active agent, the mycoplasma is still there, the bacteria has been discarded, and your blood tests will be negative even though you are infected with the brucellosis mycoplasma. Don Scott's conclusions are further corroborated by the work of Dr. Len Horowitz in Emerging Viruses: Aids and Ebola. This mycoplasma is behind the sudden epidemic of autoimmune diseases, a mycoplasma developed by the bioweaponeers as a stealth weapon that provokes no anti-inflammatory or antibody response. Mycoplasma is the infectious agent of Gulf War illness, and has long been a favourite of the bioweaponeers because of its stealth characteristics. (Stealth means that these organisms do not trigger an anti-inflammatory response or an antibody response that can be detected through normal testing. You need specialized equipment and processes to find mycoplasma or genetically-engineered brucellosis.)
Chronic fatigue and fibromyalgia are caused by brucellosis without doubt. In my book Bringing the War Home, order numbers and dates of shipment of pathogens originating in the United States and shipped to Sadam Hussein's forces in Iraq are documented, including, brucellosis.
Dr. Garth Nicolson, a world-renowned microbiologist, and his wife Nancy became ill when their daughter returned from service in Iraq during the Gulf War. After their pets died of the same illness, they managed to isolate the microbe that was making them ill. The Nicolsons discovered that the germ underlying Gulf War illness is sexually transmittable, and is in fact, Mycoplasma fermentans. They cured themselves with repeated courses of Doxycycline. Dr. Garth Nicolson now believes that brucellosis and mycoplasma together underlie much of the systemic illness we find in North America, and in fact, throughout the world. He has found more than 60% of patients with chronic fatigue, fibromyalgia, multiple sclerosis, lupus and rheumatoid arthritis test positive for the mycoplasma.
Dr. Nicolson and his wife continued their research and isolated the carrier for Gulf War illness in a squalene adjuvant that has been used since the 1970's to induce rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis in experiments. This adjuvant was put into the anthrax vaccine given to Canadian, American, British and Australian soldiers in hopes that it would boost the immune reaction far quicker than the normal course of anthrax vaccine because the U.S. military command was terrified of the biological weapons in the hands of Sadam Hussein. They had sold these same weapons to him for the war in Iran. They were afraid that they had no effective antidote, so they put the adjuvant in the anthrax vaccine to increase the speed of its effectiveness and they wrapped this mycoplasma in a 40% HIV protein coat, not to give people AIDS, but to evade the normal immune system response and get it into the blood stream and into the immune system. But they needed a carrier for this. And what did they choose? Mycoplasma fermentans, because, again, it could outwit the immune system; it could carry this adjuvant into the immune system and it was supposed to be an attenuated, or killed form of mycoplasma. But obviously, it wasn't sufficiently attenuated (we find the same problem in other live vaccines today). Approximately 200,000 American soldiers became very ill. The mycoplasma, of course, spread to their spouses and their children.
THE HISTORY BEHIND THE EPIDEMICS:
BIOWARFARE EXPERIMENTS HAVE LET LOOSE NEW PATHOGENS AMONG US
The United States is not the only country interested in mycoplasma. The mycoplasma research project of the University of Baghdad was directed by a Dr. Jawad al-Aubaidi, who did his graduate research at Cornell University (which should be renamed Biological Warfare University because of its ties to the Pentagon and its experimentation). He also worked at Plum Island research laboratory engineering animal pathogens to become more infectious and contagious and to jump the species barrier to humans. In 1975, you will recall that Plum Island, a secret biowarfare laboratory 12 miles off the U.S. coast, was working on a project to infect ticks from the active brucella toxin. Perhaps it's coincidence that the first Lyme disease occurred in Lyme, Connecticut at that time, just 12 miles away.
Last year, I suggested to the Environment News Service that somebody ought to look into Plum Island's experiments because the so-called West Nile fever that caused deaths on the eastern seaboard of the U.S. last year and has now re-emerged there and in upstate N.Y., was in fact, a form of Japanese encephalitis. My story about this wasn't published and got me in a lot of trouble. My research team and I had discovered that Japanese encephalitis was being researched at Plum Island where dead birds were discovered outside their research lab. Birds spread West Nile virus. Plum Island lies less than 22 miles from New York. What is going on? These appear to be a new breed of stealth viruses, and they certainly do not appear to be of natural origin.
Dr. Martin from the Center of Complex Infectious Diseases examined a chronic fatigue patient and discovered a new life form that is now recognized by American medical authorities called a viteria. A viteria is part virus, part bacteria and part fungus in terms of its gene sequences, something that looks very much genetically engineered and actually morphs or transforms itself from one to the other. We noted earlier that these autoimmune diseases that are afflicting more and more North Americans seem to have a viral bacterial and/or fungal origin. Dr. Martin stated that the cytomegalovirus which results in severe headaches and joint pain among other symptoms is found in monkey cell cultures used to culture live polio vaccine. We are well aware of the illness and fatalities resulting from that vaccine. Where else have we seen live monkey viruses contaminating vaccines? The Hepatitis B vaccine introduced into the gay population in seven U.S. cities by the CDC, including New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco, preceded the outbreak of AIDS in those seven cities and only those seven cities. And I thought, "Well, let's follow the monkey business further to Litton Bionetics. Litton Bionetics supplies the monkeys, the monkey cultures, the monkey viruses, and administers all of Fort Detrick's bioweapons programs. Its president, Roy Ash was National Security Advisor to President Nixon along with Henry Kissinger, who wrote the infamous Memorandum 200 calling for a population reduction across the planet.
Litton Bionetics has also been exploring kuru's use as a weapon for a number of years. Kuru was the disease among the cannibals of New Guinea investigated by the Japanese biowarfare researchers during World War II. We now know kuru is mad cow disease caused by prions which appear to be crystal capacitators that store energy and - perhaps on receiving certain frequencies - emit strobe-like bursts of actual physical light (it can be measured) leaving a spongiform or perforated brain that has baffled medical researchers because there is no disease element to find, only these spongiform brains from these abnormal proteins called prions. These are now loose among us. Litton Bionetics has been researching these prions and trying to make these into weapons for a number of years.
Finally, I think we are all familiar with the 1969 closed-door Defense Appropriation Hearings in the U.S. Senate. Dr. MacArthur stood up at that time and said "We can take 24 years of biological warfare research, use our 76 biowarfare labs in operation, add ten million dollars on top of the 31 million dollars going into this nefarious warfare research this year, and come up with the ultimate stealth weapon, a synthetic bioagent for which no natural immunity could have been acquired." And in fact, Appropriation 1509 did develop these incapacitating agents: air delivered aerosols meant to infect people by breathing them. They were intended not to be contagious and were tested on students at the Tahoe-Truckee High School in California. Seven out of eight of those victims developed chronic fatigue.
So in this quick overview, we can see that these epidemics of flu and flu-related ailments have quite a bit of history behind them. As a journalist of some 30 years standing, it is my contention that this biowarfare experimentation has gotten out of control and is now loose among the population. And really the only outstanding question (and we can include the spread of HIV) is whether this has been intentional or accidental. A very compelling case could be made for the first supposition.
In September, 1993 a patent was issued to Dr. Shyh-Ching Lo, who worked for the biological warfare division of the Defense Department in the United States, for his invention of a pathogenic or disease-causing mycoplasma responsible for pneumonia, chronic fatigue, lupus, and respiratory distress, precisely the symptoms we were seeing among Gulf War veterans, precisely the symptoms we are seeing among people in heavily sprayed areas, subjected to what I have come to call the "chemtrail spraying".
WEATHER AND ATMOSPHERE MODIFICATION
Researchers, investigators and a task force recently formed in the United States have uncovered documentation from Lawrence Livermore and other labs for U.S. government studies to spray chemicals in the upper atmosphere to repair the ozone layer and/or cool the atmosphere by one degree and head off the worst of global warming.
a) WEATHER MODIFICATION
There has been a massive effort of intense spraying across this continent at least for the past two years. What in the world is going on? Let's look at some clues. In a United States Air Force research paper, Weather as a Force Multiplier: Owning the Weather in 2025, they state that "Weather Force Specialists" are going to own the weather. Jet tankers flown by Weather Force Specialists are now in the process of creating aerial obscuration by spraying chemicals to create an overcast (or cirrus shield) in a clear blue sky to hide aerial activity from observers on the ground.
HAARP (High Altitude Auroral Research Project) is a joint US Air Force and Navy project which has for the past several years been using antennas situated near Gakona, Alaska to steer powerful beams of radio waves to heat selected parts of the upper atmosphere (ionosphere) to cause weather change. Weather is all about heat distribution and differentials, and if you can heat a part of the atmosphere, you can change the weather. According to Bernard Eastlund, the inventor of this technology, they are trying to disrupt regions of the ionosphere at a range of 1200 miles or more. These rays can interrupt brain function and cause emotional difficulties, because this will entrain with (modify) your brain patterns. "But don't worry", he said, "because we are using very low power levels." A U.S. Air Force document, Technical Memorandum #195, issued October 1991, page 185, Phillips Laboratory states: "Our intention is to have HAARP transmitting at 100 billion watts effective energy. We have never seen anything like this on earth, and God help us all if they ever come near this power level.
HAARP works on the ionosphere, way up there. HAARP does not work on the lower atmosphere where weather forms unless you put a matrix like carbon black in the air that you can heat with these intensely focused radio beams. We also found iron oxide particles in some of our spray samples.
A high ranking Air Force officer involved in these weather projects told me that they were using atmospheric folding, and by spraying in front of the moving demarcations between the upper and the lower atmosphere where weather forms, they could cause fronts and shear patterns. One effect is to bring the jet stream down to ground level on a day of otherwise normal weather. We are seeing trailer parks and small communities devastated by sudden blasts of extremely powerful winds that dissipate almost immediately after doing this damage. It is the effect of atmospheric folding, an unnatural effect.
I am seeing violent weather changes, not always, but often in conjunction with heavy spraying, particularly at the front of approaching fronts. We have videotapes of chemtrail spraying which occurred in Tennessee last winter, and the next day 90 tornadoes formed over a three-state area around the sprayed area in wintertime (winter of 98/99) when tornadoes do not form. Disruptive tornadoes have also occurred across the United States this winter (99/00). This is in the wake of heavy spraying. There have been record rains, record droughts, violent weather, very warm temperatures, particularly in Chicago and Milwaukee.
As we know global warming is real. The Arctic ice cap to the north of us is melting so rapidly that that flood of cold water is changing the temperature of the Atlantic conveyor that brings warm nutrient rich water up from the tropics along the coast of England and Europe. It is slowing that conveyor down; the warning now is that we are going to see increasingly violent weather in Europe as occurred in France and nearby countries this winter. The Antarctic ice shelf is also caving off it is melting so rapidly.
b) ATMOSPHERIC MODIFICATION
Very recently I became aware, through Mike Castle, an environmental consultant in the United States who does work for the U.S. government and other corporations, that there could be something more going on, perhaps atmospheric modification. Global warming is an extreme emergency but even more so is the rapid depletion of the radiation shield in the atmosphere. There is a high incidence of cataracts and skin cancers in Australia and in North America. What to do about this? In 1979 the physicist Freeman Dyson suggested, "Let's insert sunlight-reflecting particles in the upper atmosphere to deflect the sunlight back into space. We will use jets to do this and we will spray it." In August, 1998, at the International Seminar for Planetary Emergencies, Dr. Edward Teller proposed a sunscreen for planet earth. He said, "Let's commence a program of aerial spraying and try to lower the temperature one degree. This would take a lot of airplanes, but the U.S. Airforce has about 700 aerial tankers in its active inventory. They estimated the cost at Lawrence Livermore - $1 billion a year, a bargain price, because, they said, "if we reduce fossil fuel usage and reduce emissions of carbon to 1990 levels it will cost us $100 billion a year. So it's a bargain!
In March, 1991, Hughes Aircraft was granted Patent #1990000513145 for a process to reduce global